‘10 A.M. The sheds had to be of the most up-to-date design, with mechanical aids for taking the ships in and out, methods of suspending deflated or damaged ships, gas apparatus, and so forth. Although, on account of the meagre information at our disposal, it is difficult to arrive at an estimate concerning the airship designs of our enemies, it seems certain that Germany still leads, and it is to be hoped that she will continue to do so in the future. If seaplanes were not exactly thought of as playthings, they were at any rate not taken seriously, and were very badly off for men, material, and money. An approximate review of the best types produced during the war brings forward the following facts:—. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). Much as Jasta 2 had been renamed as Jasta Boelcke in December 1916 after Oswald Boelcke, Germany's top fighter tactician had been lost in a mid-air collision in October 1916, following the "Red Baron's" death in action in late April 1918, JG I was renamed to honor von Richthofen by order of the Kaiser. Every member of the crew was a volunteer who had been taken over from the High Seas Fleet, and put through special courses under the direction of the Officer "Commanding the Airship Service. ‘Hard aport!‘ The steersman spins his wheel, and in a moment the great ship obeys its helm. I immediately called on the battery commander to spread his fire over a larger area, but at that moment I received a message from the ground to the effect that the artillery should now be directed against the front line infantry trenches. this manner shot after shot is observed until the However, we may give as an example the fact that the L. 71, travelling at a speed of 65 M.P,H. Eventually all uniforms and the whole equipment were thua painted with protective colouring. As I fell I shut my eyes and wondered whether the parachute would open or whether I should fall like a lump of lead, and be dashed to pieces on the ground below. It seemed probable that the French would attempt to break through in Alsace, in order to improve their political situation by a local success; on the other hand, they could endanger all our war material by a push towards the industrial centres of the Saar, or, if they succeeded in reaching the railway from Longuyon to Montm6dy, they could seriously threaten the reinforcements for the whole German Front by an attack from the direction of Verdun- Both here and in Champagne the enemy's preparations for an offensive were considerably simplified by the big operations that had been undertaken previously. The flying men now began to appreciate the immense difficulties of carrying out their work in the desert. Disorganised by the pressure of fighting, weakened by casualties, they had to find what scanty protection they could in shell-holes or the remains of trenches, and they had to withstand the counterattack which the French would deliver from a region immune to artillery fire, and with fresh and untired troops. The observer, invariably an officer, was as a rule the person actually responsible in an aeroplane. adjust themselves to the darkness. Hold up the merchant steamer which has been sighted north of Raoul Island and bring her to S.M.S. A long flight in the intense cold—sometimes as many as 40 degrees of frost were registered—lack of oxygen, and the rarefied atmosphere, told upon the vitality of the airships' crews to such an extent that, finally, many men were unable to endure the height and had to give up flying. of gas daily. Along with the anti-aircraft batteries they established a strong force of fighting machines in order to hinder and restrain the work of our artillery observers. aerodrome on one green light being fired from the aeroplane. A good hour's work was necessary in order to bring them down from a height of 3300 feet, and this involved a heavy strain on the men. In this respect it differed very considerably from the aeroplane. The bows of the gondola of the P.L. ), THE dream of a German Air Force has faded away. But above all, aircraft discloses new possibilities whose development lies outside the limitations of wheeled methods of transport. Much good work was accomplished by co-operation between the Air Force and these special batteries. However, the subjugation of the enemy's infantry did not finish the battle, for their back areas also had to be dealt with: their artillery, their support trenches, ammunition dumps, the reserves that were being hurried up to the front, their ammunition columns, lorries, trains, etc. Thanks to the excellent work of the Air Force Intelligence Service, two fighting squadrons had time to cut in between Stuttgart and the Trench squadrons so as to climb above the latter, and, assisted by direction shots fired by the anti-aircraft batteries— In the fighting which ensued, the question of holding the Bedouin Arabs became more and more important. However, fighting broke out with [12][13], Following the era of the KEK units through the summer of 1916, Jagdstaffeln (hunting squadrons), established by the reorganization that started by the late summer of 1916 were fielded by four kingdoms of the German Empire. How often were the minutes anxiously counted as one calculated the amount of petrol which was left, when on the homeward flight one was engaged in some unexpected conflict against overwhelming odds, and our own lines seemed hardly to be getting any nearer! of the Horns Reef Lightship, When the airship approached, this vessel trimmed its sails and launched two boats. […] The only position which gave the observer Owing to the small forces at our disposal it waa impossible for us to escort our reconnaissance machines, or even to attempt to reach the An English squadron of eighteen D.H.9s flew over us at a great height, turned south, closely followed by our anti-aircraft fire, and dropped their belated Easter eggs on Cappy-sur-Somme, thereby enveloping that small village and its neighbouring aerodrome in thick clouds of smoke- According to official information and instructions, it was necessary to keep a sharp eye on all aircraft, in order to distinguish between friend and foe, and to avoid being taken by surprise. The English therefore made every effort to copy those German airships which fell into their hands during the war. objective by employing a formation of several two-seater machines. The observation patrols and raids into the Channel, and the attacks on French and English coast towns which were carried out from the end of the year onwards, will be dealt with later. ‘Another three yards, and you would have been dragged into the barbed wire, sir !’ one of them said. In comparison with this achievement the first flight from England to America made in peace time by the English airship It. I had long accustomed myself to the thought of evacuating Beersheba since the General Staff became more and more inclined to confine themselves to the defence of Palestine. signals several shots simultaneously, e.g. Fourteen paragraphs of the Peac6 Treaty form the tightly-knotted meshes of the net which has been cast over the young eagle's head. In September 1914, G.H.Q, organised the ‘Ostend Carrier Pigeon Squadrons,’ whose sole duty was the carrying out of bomb raids. We will now consider more closely the training of each individual branch of the Air Force. Upon this knowledge depended his ability to make use of every weakness Without hesitation every machine plunges into that inferno, and it seems as though these gigantic birds rival each other in daring. But not one is crippled, and all escape from that Inferno. night. Should the enemy manage to disperse our contact patrols, no communication existed to the rear of our lines, and if this happened when the enemy's fighting machines had succeeded in chasing away our artillery observation machines which were directing the fire of our guns against the enemy's barrage, it was impossible for us to send up reserves without a terrible loss of life and waste of time. Direct-driven propellers superseded the early complicated system of rods and stays. Tactical reconnaissance was perhaps the most dangerous work that the airman was required to perform owing to the incessant menace from hostile fighting machines and anti-aircraft guns, which sought, at any cost and by any means, to prevent the photographic machines from discovering any details of tactical importance. The infantry of old certainly respected the artillery since they could not dispense with their assistance, and both infantry and artillery imagined themselves superior to the cavalry and the Air Force which carried out their dangerous work farther afield, and of whose real assistance the infantry had no idea, of compass and chart alone; find his way back The reconnaissance machines working in the North Sea were then equipped with a wireless transmitting set, and later with a receiving set. ‘Hands off: ease up the guys.’ The men at the ropes let go, and the landing party stepped back from the gondolas. February 1916, all machines were sent to Irak, with the exception of a sufficient number to carry out the necessary reconnaissance for the protection of the coast of Asia Minor against any landing of hostile forces. several munition works). However, this we succeeded in frustrating. The masses couple the idea of 'traffic' mainly with the notion of a ‘railway,’ more even of a steamship service. The long-range guns of the heavy artillery were brought to bear on Fort Douaumont and were controlled by observation from the air, the results of their work being confirmed by photographs. Its distribution was so well timed that the entire Air Force was concentrated from the beginning, and organised with one definite object in view. The earth1 beneath disappears into the darkness of the night; the moon, that faithless friend, forsakes us and sinks beneath the horizon. Particularly when attacks were made against submarines, 20 kg. Let us hope that the achievements of war, which cost us the blood of our finest manhood, are not in vain, but will assist mankind in its progress towards the complete mastery of the air. Machines whose common daily task consisted of diving, rolling, looping, and performing aerial evolutions that are not even possible to birds, must be sound in every detail. (Stottmeister. As the night-flying airman gained in experience, his work was attended with a proportionally greater degree of success. In May 1917 this practice was adopted by No. The German aircraft industry was situated in the interior, and the designers bad frequently had no experience of the sea except as bathers. It was the Commander's duty to keep a sharp watch upon the district which had been allotted to him, and to report by wireless to the authorities any item of information which might be of value in our naval warfare. Gradually there dawned the realisation that the English fleet did not mean to come out to an open fight at sea- It would not meet us in fair fight, but preferred to blockade us far from the German In the winter of 1918, 350 ‘Formationen’ were demobilised, not including the 77 ‘Feldstabe’ which had not been on active service. At first the single-seater scouts were unable to accomplish much owing to the low-lying clouds, and during the whole of the Verdun attack there were never any formation or squadron fights in the air, for the French, contrary to the English, avoided aerial combats. Rechristened with the development and refinement of new plant and greatly increased speeds for early. Upon warding off hostile aeroplanes by well-thought-out preparations, and the Avre at sea by means of much... They suffered and how heroically they fought like lions familiar with them in the air exceedingly unpleasant immobile! 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