The analysis evaluates the informational weight of subordinate constructions (background vs. foreground information). In relation with their propensity to convey prosodic emphasis, appositive relative clauses feature the lowest proportion of flat contours, which characterises 2.5% of occurrences, while this marks 5% of adverbial clauses (p > .05) and 10% of restrictive relative clauses (F(39,39) = 1.89, p < 05). Le Goffic (1979) distinguishes between five types of relative clauses depending on the identification operations they mark. . The second coder is also a specialist of the field. Their succession in co-occurrence with the verb and its object complement highlights the predicate and the process it describes, pragmatically indexing the most relevant informational content in the sequence. Figure 1: Intonation curve of example (10) in Praat, showing a rising-falling contour in Sc.18. Charolles, Michel. Two audio files corresponding to each microphone were created in a WAV format, so as to facilitate the analysis of overlapping speech. The second coder is also a specialist of the field. Gestures with a representational function describe or represent objects, actions, and/or ideas, while gestures with an organisational function convey abstract information about discourse or the interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Table 3. This suggests an even distribution of information, and a great variety in their presentational modes. 55Each hand gesture was also assigned a function regarding co-occurring speech. “Foregrounding in English Relative Clauses.”, De Vries, Mark. They show the highest distribution of emphatic (rise-fall) contours on nuclear syllables with 15% of occurrences produced with such a contour. Synonyms for the textual organisation of information are “communicational weight” and “informational input”. 5 To see in more detail how subordinate clauses are embedded in main clauses, we return to the clause patterns and elements previewed in the chapter of the basic structures of the clause. A detailed description of our corpus and methodology ensues, to be followed by the analysis and discussion of the data. 76In sum, appositive relative clauses show a certain form of macro-syntactic autonomy in that they represent independent speech acts. The table shows, however, that no significant result concerning their verbal characteristics can differentiate adverbial clauses from the other syntactic types. (9) Held gestures and asymmetrical configurations are expected, with small organisational hand movements produced in the speaker’s periphery or low coordinates (Streeck 2009), while these features are not associated with main clauses, and larger hand movements are linked with focalisation. Pointing gestures are deictics whereas beats are linked with speech rhythm (McNeill 1992: 80), emblems are conventionalised signs and butterworths are disorganised gestures made in lexical retrieval. past participle: They arrived dressed in street clothes. The subordinate clause is one that does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a separate grammatical entity since its meaning depends on the meaning of the main clause. This Sc is not a presupposition: the co-speaker can question it independently from the rest (e.g. The agreement between coders was 84.9%. A CLAUSE is a syntactic structure that contains both a subject and a predicate. “Constructions with If, Since, and Because: Causality, Epistemic Stance, and Clause Order.” In E. Couper-Kuhlen and B. Kortmann (eds. Helm (ed). Streeck, Jürgen. The selection targeted occurrences without an interruption, surrounded with immediate left and right co-texts other than a single silent pause yielding the speaking turn. Aspect and Syntactic Structure. J. However, only a small majority of adverbial clauses are essential to the development of this discourse; this discrepancy between salience and relevance suggests their verbal action is primarily textual. “‘Object Complements’ and Conversation: Towards a Realistic Account.”, Vallduví, Enric and Elisabet Engdahl. Inscribed in a continuity, the gestures encoding a same referent are more schematic, while those carrying new information are often more precise and clearer, . He focuses on a particular report about salmon farming and its important impact on the public: Figure 6: Two successive hand beats in example (19), followed by a metaphoric hand gesture in R. 104In (19) Sc stands out from the rest of the sequence with its two successive hand beats (b) and (c), whose preparation is initiated on the antecedent (a). A noun serves as the subject of the verb in a sentence or it serves as the complement of the verb in a sentence ; so does a noun clause and even a nominal or noun phrase . The table follows the reading model of Table 1. Fundamental Frequency which participates in pitch perception) on the accented syllable of a lexical item conveys new information in the discourse (Baumann and Grice 2006). “Facial Expression and Prosodic Prominence: Effects of Modality and Facial Area.” Journal of Phonetics 36–2 (2008): 219–238. They create pragmatic and/or modal foci above the propositional level, mainly relying on visual strategies. The native video recordings were transformed into MPEG-4 stereo files, with a rate of 25 frames per second. . Kita, Sotaro, Ingeborg Van Gijn and Harry Van der Hulst. 41A total of 386 constructions were annotated in the corpus, which represents 9.76% of the total speaking time (i.e. A salient structure is thus the result, or outcome, of focalisation as a process. Frequency counts for pronouns were also made as reduced lexical forms indicate the use of discourse-old referents (e.g. As hand gestures may have several dimensions, two values could be noted and counted if need be. In terms of communicative dynamism, the “which” relative construction is an assertion that continues the narrative created by the first proposition, describing its outcome on the referent it comments upon (Muller 2006: 331). “Interaction of Audition and Vision for the Perception of Prosodic Contrastive Focus.”, Emonds, Joseph E. “Appositive Relatives Have no Properties.”. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2005. 3.27 form/min): 83 restrictive relative clauses (1.65% of speaking time —0.7 form/min), 77 adverbial clauses (1.62% of speaking time —0.65 form/min), and 58 appositive relative clauses (0.82% of speaking time —0.32 form/min). ), Swerts, Marc and Emiel Krahmer. 62From a macro-syntactic viewpoint, no syntactic or semantic cue is mainly used to index foreground information in appositive relative clauses. The unit formed by L and. The superior pole of subordination within the gradation between nucleus and periphery is parataxis, where the verbal categories of aspect, tense, and mood are retained. In separate tracks, gaze direction was annotated as either towards the co-participant or away, eyebrow movement distinguished between rise and frown, and hand gestures were categorised into iconics, metaphorics, pointings, beats, emblems, butterworths, and adaptators, drawing mainly from McNeill’s typology (2005). In relation with their propensity to convey prosodic emphasis, appositive relative clauses feature the lowest proportion of flat contours, which characterises 2.5% of occurrences, while this marks 5% of adverbial clauses (, > .05) and 10% of restrictive relative clauses (. Types of clause. “Annoter du texte tu te demandes si c’est syntaxique tu vois.”. In (7) below, the sequence could be glossed as “it’s only one shop for the whole thing now, and that is quite bad”. Ward, Gregory and Julia Hirschberg. The middle point corresponds to occurrences in which the co-text and context do not help clearing up the ambiguity. Muller, Claude. “The Role of Salience in the Production of Referring Expressions: A Psycholinguistic Perspective.” In K. van Deemter and R. Kibble (eds. significant changes in the F0 curve either regarding the speaker’s pitch range (Top, Bottom) or regarding the neighbouring tones or sequences of tones (Upstep, Downstep, Same, Low, High). They mainly comment upon their co-text as in (9), through a shift in the assertive parameters in which factual descriptions are turned into utterances showing a strong modal stance: Tim answers a question from the co-speaker about a music band who performed in a bar the night before. “Projection in Interaction and Projection in Grammar.”, Baumann, Stefan and Martine Grice. “An Annotation Scheme for Conversational Gestures: How to Economically Capture Timing and Form.” Language Resources and Evaluation 41 (2007): 325–339. Complement 4. Huddleston, Rodney and Geoffrey K. Pullum. Harris (1982) considers adverbial clauses as predicates in which one of the agents is the verbal action in itself. The function of adverbial clauses is to “signal that several clauses appearing in the thread of a text have the same relation with a certain criterion, and can thus be grouped inside units” called frames (Charolles 2003, Péry-Woodley 2000: 62). This paper focuses on restrictive relative clauses introduced by “that” as a relative pronoun. This sequence is then characterised with two successive modal positions which are not equal in intensity: the stance taken in R is stronger than that in, asymmetry mirrors the discourse structure, as R continues her sequential discursive agenda while. I don’t think it is that far away”). At the level below the traditional sentence unit, we first find the clause, a syntactic (sub-)unit that contains a subject + a finite verb, i.e. Likewise, representing referents through hand gestures is a cumulative process, often achieved through a series of several gesture units (Streeck 2009). The content in the relative clause is deemed more objective than subjective, as evidence of an effort from the speaker to avoid any commentary function (ibid.). Subordinate units are typically less modulated (. London, UK: Routledge, 2009. At the level of discourse, their predisposition to cognitive centring with cataphoric referential elements in L and anaphoric elements in R is shown in (17), where Zoe describes in a narrative how depressed she was to come back for a second year abroad: While “someone” in L points forward, projecting further precision on a referent whose relevance in the sequence is not yet justified, R’s pronoun “it” in R refers to the whole situation described in the narrative. In order to establish reliability of the nuclear contour classification, a second coder judged 20% of the data that had been classified by the original coder. The table follows the reading model of Table 1, but concerns adverbial clauses. », Anglophonia [Online], 23 | 2017, Online since 16 January 2017, connection on 23 December 2020. Example (16) also highlights the highest rate of direct transitivity of restrictive relative clauses: features a direct transitive verbal form (. 112While subordinate constructions are not significantly emphasised through their syntactic realisation or lexical coding, the increase in the referential value of the gestural components suggests a shift towards a visual manipulation of representational features, and a global, sequential valorisation of information, through held gestures and repetitions throughout tone-units. This study therefore questions whether subordinate constructions all express the same absence of prominence in terms of informational content. While high transitivity and dynamicity in the nuclear components denote the foreground (Longacre 1996), nominality and identification show an inferior semantic weight (, . Blog. . Berlin, Germany. While the first beat takes place on a vertical axis at the centre of the speaker’s coordinates, the second one is placed further on the left side of the speaker. Swerts, Marc and Emiel Krahmer. Fundamental Frequency which participates in pitch perception) on the accented syllable of a lexical item conveys new information in the discourse (Baumann and Grice 2006). 58If the constructions belong to the discourse background, they should in majority (1) be syntactically governed, with state or copular verbs (Hopper and Thompson 1980). We are also interested in the value “Same” which, if found in greater number in our sequences, would indicate that there is no break in between the different elements of the sequence. Potts (2005) also describes the content of appositive relative clauses as non-asserted, as it cannot be directly questioned. “The Intonation of Accessibility.”, Beattie, Geoff W. “Sequential Temporal Patterns of Speech and Gaze in Dialogue.”, Benzitoun, Christophe, Anne Dister, Kim Gerdes, Sylvain Kahane and Renaud Marlet. The increase in representational gestures is illustrated in example (11) in the Discussion section. Tübingen, Germany: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1986. The interpretational range of initial and final adverbial clauses has been investigated by numerous studies in the discourse literature. In face-to-face conversation, participants negotiate meaning through multimodal contributions, in which the linguistic resources of speech interface with gesture. We are particularly interested in values which indicate a significant pitch reset (Top, Bottom), or a significant change in pitch key (Upstep —change towards a higher pitch range, Downstep— towards a lower pitch range). Dortmund, Universität Dortmund (2005): 88–94. In example (2) below, the adverbial clause is in initial position. 33In this study, gesture includes co-speech bodily movement that is considered part of an utterance, following Kendon’s (2004) definition. The highest distribution of emphatic (rise-fall) contours in appositive relative clauses is shown in example (10) represented in Figure 1 below. “Strange Relatives of the Third Kind.” Natural Language Semantics 6–2 (1998): 125–170. Frequency counts per syntactic type were realised for any discourse-new referential item introduced as discourse-new items that move the discourse forward, . It refers to the cognitive mechanism deriving from the attentional state, in which one element is perceived by the co-speaker as standing out among others. Our analysis shows that the different syntactic types of subordinate constructions can be differentiated on the grounds of their communicational input. Table 6. 2 For comparison’s sake, this study focuses on subordinate structures that feature a finite predicate. The second coder is also a specialist of the field. The second coder is also a specialist of the field. Selting, Margret. A Grammar of English on Mathematical Principles. Harris, Zelig. Each participant had a lavalier microphone, which provided two separate audio tracks. In English grammar, a subordinate clause is a group of words that has both a subject and a verb but (unlike an independent clause) cannot stand alone as a sentence. 14 The table follows the reading model of Table 4, except the first column (which gives the number of gestures showing each feature per segment) and the last column (which gives the percentage of the gestures in adverbial clauses out of the total of gestures in the sequence —L+Sc+R). ’s final rising contour indexes more talk to come, and centres the co-speaker’s attention on the forthcoming segment. In (7) below, the sequence could be glossed as “it’s only one shop for the whole thing now, and that is quite bad”. Givón (1987: 176) contradicts the notion of any fixed grammatical correlate to the foreground/background distinction in discourse. 5 Kuroda (1968) analyses the difference with respect to deep structure, as a contrast between determiners. Grosz, Barbara J., Aravind K. Joshi and Scott Weinstein. 3a. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2014. Sloetjes, Han and Peter Wittenburg. “Movement Phases in Signs and Co-speech Gestures, and their Transcription by Human Coders.” In Proceedings of the Gesture and Sign Language in Human-computer Interaction Workshop. “Figure and Ground: The Interrelationships of Linguistic Categories.” In P. J. Hopper (ed. This predicate represents new information and establishes a narrower focus than that of L. 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Collins & D. Lee ( eds. ): University! Noun phrase in an experiential order ( the plane goes through turbulence foreground information run instead of,...