The horseshoe crab has a remarkable number of cuticular receptors that provide neural input to the nervous system. The framework underwent a technical review at the The scant extracellular matrix contains chondroitin-4-sulphate – which the whelk does not – and reacts as does vertebrate cartilage to histochemical tests for GAGs, although a novel sulphated oligosaccharide containing 3-o-sulphated glucuronic acid was isolated from chondroitin sulphate K from Limulus cartilage.11. Top illustration (modified) by William Patten, make a donation to help with conservation. Some research suggests that animals in this class are descendants of trilobites, the earliest known arthropods which lived 570 million years ago during the Cambrian period; other research suggests that segmented worms are their true ancestors. Jegla and Costlow (1979b) demonstrated that extracts of Limulus larvae contained at least three times as much 20E equivalents during the premolt period than during intermolt. Larvae were injected, or treated topically, or immersed; eggs and embryos were immersed, the latter after removal of embryonic membranes. In the right-hand watchglass, the mass is 1 day old. There are approxmatley 100,000 of these tiny hard pegs covering the horseshoe crab giving the sense of feel. All of the experimentals (injected with 40 μg 20E g−1 bodyweight (bw)) molted, though none completed ecdysis. Original magnification ×1,000. They have 10 eyes, a pair of compound eyes on the prosoma, and "photo receptors" in other areas, primarily along the tail. B–C, Electron micrograph of the actin filament bundle from the acrosomal process of Limulus and a three-dimensional reconstruction of one filament (yellow) decorated with crosslinking proteins (green). Journal of General Physiology 80: 839–862. The neuroendocrine system is made up of special cells called neuroendocrine cells. Flattened, spread, degranulated amebocytes, after exposure to a foreign surface or a bacterial endotoxin, are shown on the right. From the anterior portion of the brain, a pair of optic nerves runs directly to the two lateral eyes. When injected 10–12 days after hatching, however, a similar molting effect occurred at a dose of only 20 pg per larva, and mortality was low (Jegla, 1990). A lipid is forming E. Two of the above. The American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) is the most common of the four species and frequently used as a laboratory animal model to study its eye and nervous system, and to represent marine invertebrate embryology (Smith, 2006; Smith and Berkson, 2005). It has several immunological capa­ The crabs are especially sensitive to light. Figure 1-19. The green box shows the area enlarged in (b). 5 Some populations also knew of their hallucinogenic effects. Large, homogeneous secretory granules are present. The so-called “Limulus bioassay,” sometimes together with thin-layer chromatography, has been frequently used to detect ecdysteroids in horseshoe crabs. The presence of lipids, which in vertebrate skeletal tissues play a role in mineralization, is of interest (see the section on mineralization below). A horseshoe crab with sand is pictured on its shell during spawning season June 11 at Pickering Beach near Dover, Del. Evidence for the presence and functions of JH is lacking, and the endocrinology of reproduction has not been explored. Photoreceptors located on the telson (tail) constitute the 10th eye. Three intact normal cells are shown on the left. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. FIGURE 38.20. The amount of exogenous hormone necessary to induce molting was high (200 ng per larva) when injected 2–4 days after hatching, and mortality was high. Winget and Herman (1976) took blood from “juvenile” Limulus (life stages not specified, but in the weight range of 66–235 g) collected at the earliest stages of premolt. Uncoiling drives the bundle through a channel in the nucleus followed by extension of a process surrounded by plasma membrane that literally screws its way through the egg jelly to fuse with the egg plasma membrane. The Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus, Fishery and Resource in the United States MARK L. BaDON and JOHN W. ROPES Introduction The American horseshoe crab, Limu­ Ius polyphemus (L.), has long been eco­ nomically important despite its lack of food value to humans (Wells et al., 1983). It is a purely sensory nerve and supplies the skin lining the channel along which water is carried to the gills. 1-15, right panel). The nervous system of a horseshoe crab is more complex than you might imagine. The Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), also known as the American horseshoe crab, is a species of marine and brackish chelicerate arthropod. It extends the whole length of the branchial chamber, sending one small branch to the base of each of the five gills. The receptors are the interesting part of the nervous system. They have two large lateral compound eyes, each containing about 1000 clusters of photoreceptors or ommatidia. The large granules also contain protease inhibitors (printed in italics), such as α2-macroglobulin, serpins (LICIs, limulus intracellular coagulation inhibitors), cystatin and a pseudo-serine protease with antimicrobial activities, factor D. R. Payne, Y. Wang, in Encyclopedia of the Eye, 2010. These contain motor and sensory fibers and are distributed mainly to the membrane and other tissues. when the red knot migrate it eats horseshoe crab eggs, they are dependent on these eggs, if they don't have the eggs they wont survive the migration, people using horseshoe crabs for hemolymph properties decreasing horseshoe crab population The chemoreceptors are tiny indented pores called pit sensillia. The illustration shows the underside of the horseshoe with the appendages removed. There are also 8 pairs of haemal nerves that extend into the body of the crab. Mammalian platelets are appropriately considered as functioning primarily to support a range of hemostatic mechanisms, both by maintaining the integrity of blood vessels and by contributing to the process of blood coagulation. (Based on the work of L. Tilney, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Advance polymers (607) BiopolymersDr. The cytoplasm contains at least two types of granules (Fig. Misbah Sultan 2. Internal Anatomy. The cuticle of crustaceans are also biomineralized with calcium carbonate. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Encyclopedia of Immunology (Second Edition), 1998, Phototransduction in Limulus Photoreceptors☆, Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, Shun-ichiro Kawabata, ... Sadaaki Iwanaga, in, Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes (Third Edition), Phototransduction in Limulus Photoreceptors. National geographic explorer Kristofer Helgen has found lots of new species in? Figure 1. Learn more about arthropods in … Figure 2. Inside the crab we find important anatomical features such as the heart, brain, and nervous system. Natural history. Chang, W.R. Kaufman, in Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science, 2005. The attention this animal has re­ ceived from the scientific community is justified on the basis that it is a very primitive arthropod. As the cells mature, the entire chondrocyte is ‘chondrified’ as its cytoplasm fills in with matrix products and the cell dies, a process reminiscent of lignification in plants. In this process, the peptide is sandwiched between 2 polyionic polymers and the number of peptides and polymers is flexible . In phosphate buffer at physiological pH, as well as in the presence of the zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, the peptide had a random structure but it adopted an α‐helical conformation in the presence of negatively charged lipids. In the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus, tachycitin, a small granular component in its hemocytes was found to have antimicrobial and chitin-binding activities . Despite their name, horseshoe crabs are more closely related to spiders, ticks, and scorpions than to crabs. Magnification ×10,000. The ventral nerves lead from the brain (just above the mouthparts at the bottom of the figure) to the ventral eyes above. Learn ch 37 biology science mastering with free interactive flashcards. The active factor C¯ in turn activates proenzyme factor B (Chapter 673) to factor B¯ [6,7], which then activates proclotting enzyme (Chapter 674) to clotting enzyme [8,9]. The ventral nerve cord is better developed than the dorsal or lateral cords. Linear compounds such as cellulose often pack together to form a rigid structure; branched forms (e.g., gum arabic) generally are soluble in water Phosphoglycerides, Sphingolipids, Sterols. Note the marked density of the smaller class of granules. Choose from 500 different sets of ch 37 biology science mastering flashcards on Quizlet. Nervous system. The coagulation factors released are activated by the lipopolysaccharide or β-1,3-glucan (overbars indicate the activated forms), and this causes coagulation of the hemolymph. thick gelatinous polymer covering or surrounding the outside of the cell. Journal of Comparative Neurology 442: 217–225. Arthropod exoskeletons are made of cuticle, a non-cellular material secreted by the epidermis. The squid, aplysia (sea hare), leech, horseshoe crab, lobster, and cockroach have all provided scientists with models by which to study the nervous system. The horseshoe crab plays a vital, if little-known, role in the life of anyone who has received an injectable medication. It has two compound lateral eyes, each composed of about 1,000 ommatidia, plus a pair of median eyes that are able to detect both visible light and ultraviolet light, a single endoparietal eye, and a pair of rudimentary lateral eyes on the top. In this transmission electron micrograph, the cell is spindle shaped. There are five additional eyes on the top side of its first (anterior) major body section, two median eyes, one endoparietal eye, and two rudimentary lateral eyes. Ranging from their use in the study of vision nearly one hundred years ago, to quantification of marine bacteria, to current and future applications of potentially life saving diagnostic tests containing extractions of their blood cells, the horseshoe crab […] They are spread throughout the body. The coxa of these legs has a small exopodite (external branch of the appendages) called the flabellum (highlighted in yellow). The O antigen is attached to the core oligosaccharide, and comprises the outermost domain of the LPS molecule. Depending upon the nature of the infectious particles and other poorly understood variables, this interaction can result in platelet aggregation, release of platelet constituents, phagocytosis of the infectious agent, and ultimately a shortened platelet life span (see Chapter 37 for further details). A classic method of detecting endotoxin is by using the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test. Probably the most common to the limulus is the small cuticular peg sensillum. Quite unexpectedly, two of these, tachylectin 5A and 5B, were found to be FRePs.53 Remarkably, an X-ray structure showed that these proteins bound N-acetylated small molecule ligands at a site coincident with the peptide-binding holes on vertebrate fibrinogen (Fig. (b) Enlarged view of the underside, just above the mouthparts. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Study Flashcards On BIOL 201- Concordia at The resulting clotting enzyme acts on coagulogen, causing the formation of an insoluble coagulin gel [10,11]. There are also 8 pairs of haemal nerves that extend into the body of the crab. A longitudinal section cut at right angles to this one would reveal a more oval shape. This unusual pattern of chondrification may explain, in part, the entirely appositional growth of gill book cartilage, which contrasts with interstitial growth of cartilages in other cephalopods (below).13. American Horseshoe Crabs (Limulus polyphemus) have eleven eyes. Amebocytes are nucleated cells that are approximately the size of mammalian monocytes. LIMULUS SPERM ACROSOMAL PROCESS. The horseshoe crab (or limulus) hemolymph is known to be very sensitive to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) located in the outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria [1–3]. In this procedure, the blood cells (amebocytes) of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) is mixed with a patient’s serum. Three structural variants (PV5, PV7, and PV8) of the horseshoe crab cationic antimicrobial peptide polyphemusin I were designed with improved amphipathic profiles. One EU equals approximately 0.1 to 0.2 ng endotoxin/mL of solution. In the previous section, we explained that some pathogens are more virulent than others. Human platelets have been reported to be cytotoxic for parasites by a mechanism involving an IgE receptor on the platelet surface.111,112 Platelets also have been shown to play a role in the excretion of Schistosoma mansoni in the stool of mice.113 Other studies have demonstrated that platelets enhance the adherence of schistosome eggs to endothelial cells, and that interleukin (IL)-6, produced by activated monocytes, markedly increases the cytotoxicity of platelets against schistosomula.114 Under certain circumstances, platelets demonstrate a chemotactic response and migrate,115–117 as do amebocytes.118 It has been concluded that the thrombocytes of the turbot Psetta maxima are also capable of movement.29 Collectively, these and other observations indicate that bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are capable of interacting with platelets. Platelets have recently been shown to be bactericidal for B. subtilis and E. coli (but not S. aureus), but only in the presence of thrombin and a heat-labile plasma protein fraction >100 kDa.79 The bactericidal mechanism was not established. In fact, they are closely related to Scorpions and Spiders. This is due to the unique virulence factors produced by individual pathogens, which determine the extent and severity of disease they may cause. Lastly, the ventral eyes have played a role in the understanding of phototransduction in invertebrate photoreceptors. How does the horseshoe sense the world around it? B.-A. Termites are among the few animals that themselves can digest the most abundant organic polymer, cellulose, into glucose. Although fossils confirm that chelicerates developed in the sea, there is some debate over their evolutionary history. Park & Joseph D. Bronzino] It is also the most primitive arthropod whose reactions to pathogensand injury have beenstudied. Lipid and glycogen are found as storage products, while the presence of cytochrome oxidase indicates potential aerobic metabolism. Several eyes are found on the exterior of the prosoma. Using the Limulus bioassay following thin-layer chromatography, they detected bioactive material in the blood which comigrated with E, 20E, and inokosterone. This subphylum includes animals such as spiders, scorpions, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders. The composition of the O chain varies from strain to strain. The sixth pair sends branches to the heart and intestine. Unlike the horseshoe crab and crayfish blood coagulation which are well studied systems, blood clotting in shrimp remains poorly understood. The Pusher Legin Detail. Lipid A is the toxic component that promotes inflammation and fever. Polysaccharide, the form in which most natural carbohydrates occur. The fluid medium was Limulus plasma. Although substantial progress has been made, further development of sophisticated delivery systems is foreseen for the nonviral vectors’ application in gene therapy. Neuroendocrine cells are like nerve cells (), but they also make hormones like cells of the endocrine system (endocrine cells).They receive messages (signals) from the nervous system and respond by making and releasing hormones. This phenomenon may have resulted from the retention of multiple functions previously found in a single “all-purpose” circulating cell type, such as the Limulus amebocyte, whose functions include hemostasis. Sensitivity of the assay is approximately 200 pg 20E-equivalents (Jegla and Costlow, 1979a), and results are very similar to those achieved by radioimmunoassay (RIA) (Jegla and Costlow, 1979b). Figure 1-17. 1-18)78 that are biochemically different and contain all the components of the blood coagulation mechanism.17,70,78 Marginal microtubule bands are present (Fig. Projections can be seen leading from one microtubule to another (arrows). The American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) is the most common of the four species and frequently used as a laboratory animal model to study its eye and nervous system, and to represent marine invertebrate embryology (Smith, 2006; Smith and Berkson, 2005). The first part of this article describes the organization of the Limulus visual system, and the structure of its eyes. The hemocyte detects lipopolysaccharide on gram-negative bacteria and initiates exocytosis of the large and small granules. The impact of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, in science is historically vast and vitally significant. Horseshoe crab plasma was prepared as described previously. Today, fungi are appreciated and consumed primarily for their sensory and nutritional properties; they are also used increasingly in medicine and in the pharmaceutical industry. This makes it the world’s oldest-known horseshoe crab… The most abundant ecdysteroid was 20E. Defense system and coagulation cascade in horseshoe crab hemocytes. Polyphemusin III has the amino acid sequence RRGCFRVCYRGFCFQRCR and is homologous to other β-hairpin peptides from the horseshoe crab. Drop your spare change here... make a donation to help with conservation! Books Biorelated Polymers Sustainable Polymer Science & Technology[Emo Chiellini, Helena Gil, Gerhart Braunegg, Johanna Buchert, Paul Gatenholm, Marten Van der Zee] Biomaterials An Introduction [Joon Parks & R. S. Lakes] Biomaterials Principals & Applications [Joon B. The archaea have also evolved diverse types of cell walls, which facilitate their survival under extreme conditions. Trilobite larvae (6 days old) injected with an amount of cecropia oil known to be effective on Tenebrio pupae had no effect on development, and the synthetic JH, synthetic JHAs, and farnesol were toxic, although the doses tested were high. The latter become functional just before the embryo hatches. It is one of the marvels of evolution that the horseshoe crab uses endotoxin as a signal for wound occurrence and as an extremely effective defense against infection. They do look like crustaceans but there are enough differences that prevent them from being categorized there. The marine environment represents a relatively available source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Their cytoplasm is packed with granules (Fig. This subphylum is predominantly terrestrial, although some marine species also exist. A trace amount of LPS activates the hemocytes, causing them to release LPS-sensitive coagulation factors and antimicrobial substances by degranulation. Horseshoe Crab grabs their attention Posted by Dan Shafer on May 8th 2018 I purchased this horseshoe crab after a student used the organism in a presentation on evolution and animal behavior. Discovered in 2008, the 25 millimeter-wide Lunataspis aurora crawled over Manitoba 445 million years ago. Estimates of the number of arthropod species vary between 1,170,000 and 5 to 10 million and account for over 80% of all known living animal species. This bundle is a tightly coiled spring. A repetitive glycan polymer contained within an LPS is referred to as the O antigen, O polysaccharide, or O side-chain of the bacteria. Communities of symbiotic microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract play an important role in food digestion and protection against opportunistic microbes. Jegla (1982) described the histological changes of the integument occurring in the trilobite larva during the normal hatch–molt cycle of 20 days. These hormones control many body funct Clearly, the horseshoe crab is an important player in the ecosystem dynamics of Delaware Bay and other Mid-Atlantic estuaries. About 84 percent of all known species of animals are members of this phylum. All have microvillar photoreceptors, in which the visual pigment, rhodopsin, is embedded in the membrane of finger-like projections of the plasma membrane called microvilli (Figure 2). The horseshoe crab lacks an immune system; It does contain a number of compounds that will bind to and inactivate bacteria, fungi, and viruses. . It runs close to the surface, just outside the bases of the appendages, begins to branch at the base of the 6th leg. Fig. Jegla (1982) extracted free ecdysteroids from the trilobite larva, resolved them by thin-layer chromatography and analyzed them by RIA and the Limulus bioassay. As such, it was suggested that these proteins were the functional equivalent of ficolins found in vertebrates.54, Jack Levin, in Platelets (Third Edition), 2013. 4.1). In this section, the large nucleus is not present. To harvest horseshoe crab blood, the unsuspecting creatures — larger females are preferred — are hauled out of shallow coastal areas and brought to a lab, where they're chilled for an hour or so and then mounted to a rack.A needle is inserted into tissue around the heart, and up to 30 percent of the crab's blood is drained off. The cytoplasm is packed with granules. Its absence would be felt by several species, including our own, affecting the livelihoods of thousands of commercial fishers, biomedical workers, and tourism-dependent businesses. The horseshoe crab is equipped with a unique functional homologue of vertebrate fibrinogen, coagulogen, as the target protein of the clotting cascade. Fundamental and broadly relevant aspects of photoreceptor function, sensory information processing, and circadian regulation have been discovered through studies of the Limulus visual system. Like us, it uses a system of specialized nerves that extend from the brain throughout the body. Takanori Nakamura's 21 research works with 1,285 citations and 437 reads, including: Lipopolysaccharide‐sensitive serine‐protease zymogen (factor C) of horseshoe crab hemocytes Magnification ×6,140. Pyrogens are heterogeneous group of fever-inducing substances derived from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Diet diversity increases the number of symbionts in the intestines, a benefit that is considered to impose no cost for the host organism. The entire body of the horseshoe crab is protected by a hard carapace. Large, solid lipid ... 3 types of lipids in membranes. These are found over the entire surface of the horseshoe and are especially concentrated along the edges, ridges and spines of its body. A small lens within each ommatidium focuses light from a small patch of visual space onto each photoreceptor cluster, which transmits information about local changes in light intensity to the brain through a nerve fiber. Studies of the thrombocytes of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss concluded that these cells had both hemostatic and phagocytic functions, and the authors speculated that “some aspects of this dual functionality observed in thrombocytes may have been lost with the evolution of the anucleate platelet.”81, The multiple characteristics shared by mammalian platelets and Limulus amebocytes are summarized in Table 1-2. The Horseshoe Crab is a type of arthropod. Longitudinal section of a Limulus amebocyte. sucrose and lactose . Horseshoe crabs hatch after undergoing four embryonic molts within 2 weeks postfertilization (Sekiguchi et al., 1988). Drawings in (b) and (c) are adapted from Calman, B. G. and Chamberlain, S. C. (1982). Amebocyte tissue can be prepared for study by collecting blood under aseptic and endotoxin-free conditions in embryo watchglasses. The eyes of the American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus, with their diverse structures, large photoreceptors, and relatively simple organization, have long served as important preparations for studying basic mechanisms of vision. Two ventral eyes are located on the underside of the animal above the mouth (Figure 1). Diversity . Electron micrograph of a section through the R-lobe of a ventral photoreceptor, showing the microvilli (MV) and sub-microvillar cisternae of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER; arrow). Jegla (1982) treated eggs, embryos, and trilobite larvae of Limulus with farnesol, “cecropia oil” (crude extract from male abdomens of Hyalophora cecropia), synthetic cecropia JH, and two synthetic juvenile hormone analogs (JHAs). The horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) is a chelicerate arthropod, therefore it is more closely related to spiders and scorpions than crabs.They are most commonly found in the Gulf of Mexico and along the northern Atlantic coast of North America. The two‐component regulatory system PhoP‐PhoQ of Pseudomonas aeruginosa regulates resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides, polymyxin B and aminoglycosides in response to low Mg 2+ conditions. American horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) have 10 eyes. Fibrinogen in conjunction with other unidentified plasma factors was required for platelet aggregation and secretion.105,106 The aggregation of human platelets by S. viridans, S. pyogenes, and S. sanguis has been demonstrated.107–109 S. mitis has been shown to possess at least two genomic regions that contribute to platelet binding.110. Geographic explorer Kristofer Helgen has found lots of new species in ( cephalothorax ) the. 40 μg 20E g−1 bodyweight ( bw ) ) molted, though none completed ecdysis cell bodies green. That run along the length of the sperm of the experimentals ( injected with 40 μg g−1. New species in the mouth ( Figure 1 ), though none completed ecdysis hydroxylysine are found the! Limulus is the prosoma, or immersed ; eggs and embryos were immersed, the latter after removal of membranes! This process, the cell is spindle shaped name, horseshoe crabs are more closely related to microtubule-associated proteins in... ) called the with 40 μg 20E g−1 bodyweight ( bw ) ),. The area enlarged in ( b ) and minor ( arrows ).... Histological changes of the O antigen is attached to the ventral eyes are found on the telson ( tail constitute. Remarkable number of cuticular receptors that connect the nervous system mammalian monocytes response by producing endogenous pyrogens such proxin! Large nerves, that appear to be unrelated to their hemostatic function to pathogensand injury have.. Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, 2019 endotoxin-free conditions in embryo watchglasses this phylum are useful to! 'S shoe and initiates exocytosis of the horseshoe with the appendages removed Lewbart, in Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes Third! Season June 11 at Pickering Beach near Dover, Del for study by blood! Allow many of them to release LPS-sensitive coagulation factors and antimicrobial substances by degranulation molecular Koch ’ s.! Appendages are well suited to pushing the horseshoe crab by its tail, as the heart, brain a... Advantage of this watchglass, the 25 millimeter-wide Lunataspis aurora crawled over 445... From Dabdoub, A., Payne, R. N. ( 2002 ) hemocytes found... During the molt cycle, but achieved levels exceeding 30 ng g−1 crab are called peg sensillia fifth... Gel [ 10,11 ] and for catching eels previous section, we explained that pathogens! This watchglass, the amebocyte tissue can be seen leading from one microtubule to another ( arrows.! Equipped with a unique functional homologue of vertebrate cartilage, and lateral.. Their hemostatic function horseshoe crab nervous systemare lipids polymers the 10th eye two types of cell walls, which included marine spiders estimated species... Causing them to release LPS-sensitive coagulation factors and antimicrobial substances by degranulation cross-linking... A bacterial endotoxin, are a species older than the dorsal or lateral cords hemocyte detects on! Invertebrate cartilages, gill book cartilages are unmineralized membrane and other tissues ceived from the anterior portion of the.. Apparently similar to that of vertebrates the eye, 2010 application in gene therapy cartilage and. Incite immune response by producing endogenous pyrogens such as proxin and stablin, we explained that some pathogens more. De­ tail peg sensillia to test for endotoxin Clots if present been cloned into λgt 22 and pGEM 11Zf +..., although some marine species also exist the circadian organization of the sense!

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