When Should you Chlorinate Your Water Well. Drain and refill. Anything under 7 is acidic and being out of range makes chlorine significantly less effective. How to keep kiddie pool water clean? How often should kiddie pool water be changed? After the pool is dry, you’ll want to disinfect it. Article from imaginegnats.com. Bleach is just weaker by volume than liquid chlorine. You may use 2.5 teaspoons for every 100 gallons of water. Using a mixture of pool chlorine with over the counter chlorine bleach is a good solution for keeping a clean pool. Something to keep in mind is that dogs often have a lot of pet dander and hair that is going to fall off in the pool. If you don’t want to use chlorine in your inflatable pool, you may opt to use household bleach and baking soda. It is recommended to wait at least 20 minutes to an hour after adding water balancing chemicals. Most remedies call for adding additional chlorine into the water. I think the answer to your question is about 3-6 days. The You can even use your bare hands to stir the water! That will also help the water to last longer. Outdoor pools might collect everything from dirt, sticks, and leaves to debris left from bugs, pets, and animals. When you have a pool or Kiddie Pool Filter System in your backyard, you should maintain it as well. With the smaller-sized kiddie pools (the ones that hold perhaps 30 gallons or so), it is fairly easy to just empty out the pool every day and then spend a few minutes filling it up with fresh water every time you want to use it. Cover your pool when the kids are finished playing for the day. For example, you can add 1/16th cup (or 1 tablespoon) of chlorine bleach. What are the names of Santa's 12 reindeers? If you are going to let your dog in the kiddie pool, you’ll want to change the water after. It may be extremely tempting to empty and refill a kiddie pool every few days instead of cleaning it. Craft Instructions For Kids .. are no larger than 15 feet in any dimension. Use chlorine. If you do not have testing strips, the best way to check water health is to monitor it closely. How to Keep Mosquitoes Out of Our Kiddie Pool Empty your kiddie pool each night. With a Conditioner level of 30 ppm-50 ppm using bleach or liquid chlorine is all you need. These will help keep the water clean and will benefit your children’s skin at the same time. How long can water sit in pool without chlorine? How to Clean Your Pool Without Chemicals Replace the chlorine with salt. of salt in hot water, and pour the salty solution into the kiddie pool full of water. Just keep a few tennis balls floating on the surface of your pool, and take them out and wash them thoroughly with soap and water each week. This is especially true for smaller kiddie pools or ones that have a unique shape. How do you maintain kiddie pool water? Flat. You should wait 2-4 hours (or one full cycle through the filter) to swim from the moment you use calcium chloride in your pool. How were the clipper ships and the California Gold Rush related? If you use dog toys in the pool, make sure to clean them as well, because even they can attract algae and bacteria. How long can you safely go without treating pool water? Hopefully, these tips have been helpful to parents wondering how to keep kiddie pool water clean. Keep Bacteria Out. Then, rinse and dry as you would normally. How long after adding bleach to pool Can you swim. Tired of To drain larger pools, you can push down the side or let some air out if it is inflatable to drain some water before tipping it. Let’s face it, kids are great at getting grass and stuff in the pool! Use the BBB method to keep your kiddie pool clean. Clean the pool or water slide daily. What is internal and external criticism of historical sources? Just so, how do I keep my kiddie pool clean naturally? Cover the pool to keep debris away. The dog pool should always be sprayed with a hose and left out to dry completely. The amount of vinegar you need depends on the pool. You will need to know the diameter of the kiddie pool in feet, and the depth of water you fill it with in inches. (top) contain from 200 to 4,000 gallons. Also measure the water's pH, which should be between 7.2 and 7.8, to ensure kiddie swimmer comfort. If you use stabilized chlorine, it likely already has cyanuric acid in it. This product groups the impurities that float in the water, causing them to fall to the bottom of the pool so that they can be removed later with a cleaner. For an added measure, you can leave the pool out in the sun for 4 hours. Let the pool or water slide air dry. If you’re worried about water waste, you can use the excess water in your garden or on the lawn. You can use either of these products to make a paste by adding just a little water until you have a thick measure. Try the Aqua Broom. Use two and a half teaspoons of household bleach for every 100 gallons of water. Then, rinse the area and let it dry completely before filling it again. Explore. You’ll want to keep the pool somewhere you don’t mind ruining the grass and you won’t want to use the pool water on your grass or plants. Get a Scumbug. When chlorinating wading pools, use 1/8 cup per 100 gallons of new water. How do you keep a pool clean without a filter? Commercial pool cleaners contain a variety of chemicals that might cause various skin problems especially for children with sensitive skin. However, after one summer you will waste 300 to 600 gallons of water needlessly. You won’t need to wash the kiddie pool every day, just any time that you notice stuck-on debris. Even then, however, accidents can happen. You should also look for excessive debris in the water or any kind of discoloration or cloudiness. You should invest in a cover for larger inflatable pools. Without Chemicals If a parent chooses not to use chemicals in the kiddie pool, the water must be drained after the children are done using it. You can find our list of best kiddie pools (including a dog pool that’s great for kids and dogs). You may be surprised to know that you can use chlorine for kiddie pools! Something to keep in mind is that you’ll need a good fit for the pool cover to be effective. Use sphagnum moss. And use only regular common unscented bleach, never the splashless type. Even smaller pools pose a drowning hazard for young children and wildlife might get inside them. You’ll need to do this because most smaller pools don’t have a filter, so the smaller bits of debris that you can’t remove using up a lot of the chemicals and it’s hard to track without testing. What is the difference between one drive and one drive for business? For a smaller kiddie pool, you might only need 1/4 cup to 1/2 cup of vinegar. The 2 filters couldn't even keep up with it. After your pool is drained, Dr. Orr says to clean it completely, allow it to dry, and then set it in the sun for at least four hours before using it again (in keeping with the CDC). Warm☀ weather is coming and it’s cool to have an opportunity to take out and prepare a swimming pool for kids. Jun 6, 2014 - You can DIY this easy kiddie pool cover for less than $3 to save water and your sanity all summer long. Let the robotic pool cleaner do the job. The range of each chemical starts at 0, which means there isn’t any in the pool. ¿Cuáles son los 10 mandamientos de la Biblia Reina Valera 1960? For the next step, you’ll need a rag or cloth and some soap. Tired of However, without proper cleaning, kiddie pools become a breeding ground for the growth of algae and bacteria that can make your child sick. For smaller pools, your biggest things to consider are pH and the level of the chemical you’ve chosen to use. Use a Pool Vacuum: Connect a garden hose and a pool pole to the Leaf … Some plants don't enjoy a lot of salt. DIY And Crafts. When adding any chemicals to the pool, you need to know how many gallons of water is in it. A hard plastic kiddie pool is usually the easiest to clean—you don’t have to worry about scrubbing at collapsible inflatable walls. Dissolve 1/2 lb. Likewise, how do you take care of a kiddie pool? (This is only a good idea because you should not use chemicals in smaller kiddie pools, so there isn’t anything that will harm your lawn or plants). For some kiddie pools, it is nearly impossible to find a pool cover that fits. The sun should dry it quickly and as an added benefit, after a few hours, it kills germs, too. However, without proper cleaning, kiddie pools become a breeding ground for the growth of algae and bacteria that can make your child sick. Cleaning the pool manually can take some time and be exhausting. Herein, can you put chlorine in a kiddie pool? Samantha Davis is a part-time writer and a full-time mommy of two boys, Apollo (age 5) and Adrien (age 7). How to keep kiddie pool water clean with this tool is by turning it on and put it on the base. Kiddie pools are a great way for your little one to exercise and cool off during the warmer months. For a medium-sized kiddie pool (think around 10-ft. or larger), you’ll want to drain the water once it becomes discolored, slimy, or you notice things floating in it. Other Ideas For Keeping Kids Pool Clean Naturally: I got a pool net from walmart to clean out the floating debris. Empty small pools daily. You can buy some antibacterial cleaner, and periodically scrub your dog’s pool, so it stays clean all summer long. Oct 6, 2015 - Here is a simple tip of how to keep you kiddie swimming pool clean keeping dirt, leaves and most bugs out of the water when it is not in use. Oils from skin and sun block on … Use a rag to scrub the pool, and dump the water out. You’ll also need to safely maintain their kiddie pool water, whether you use pool chemicals or change it frequently. Scum Balls absorb oil from sunscreen, makeup, lotions, and other products you might use in your hair or skin, which lengthens the time between cleanings. Kids should stay out of the pool when they are sick and younger kids should wear swim diapers (you can find our list of best swim diapers here). If your water's pH balance is between 7.2 and 7.5, however, you can add baking soda to the water to help clear it up. It is one of the most potent elements we have to destroy and deactivate infections, viruses, and other illness-causing bacteria, … Household bleach generally has 5-10% chlorine. As for the stuff on the bottom, with the end in the pool, run your hose till it is full of water, undo it from the faucet and put your thumb over the end so water does not start to seep out, pull it a ways away from the pool and let it start siphoning water from the pool. I had one in our back yard with a turtle and a few fish and that thing had to be emptied once every month or two. You should empty smaller kiddie pools at the end of each day unless you have a cover. Put two 1" chlorine tabs in the floater and wait a day to bring up the chlorine. Kiddie pools are a great way for your little one to exercise and cool off during the warmer months. Can you use chlorine in an inflatable pool? Instead of a pool cover, you can use a tarp and bungee cords or rope. There are several ways that you can set up the cover. Chlorine is the most common solution for cleaning swimming pools and one of the most dangerous as well. How do you keep a pool clean without chemicals? Mix uniformly with pool water. What is the standard enthalpy of formation of liquid methanol ch3oh L? Clean your gutters regularly. Rinse off any dirt with fresh water. Try to change the pool water a day or two before these problems start showing up. Start by putting on a pair of gloves and removing any visible matter that you can. And while you can easily get a decent clean with soap and water, a more detailed cleaning regimen will help reduce bacterial growth and keep your pool … Kiddie Pool Filter Pump. Once you do choose a location for the pool, monitor the water for changes and make note of it. Add one half to one cup of bleach to the water. You can do this by emptying some of the water or waiting for it to come down naturally over time. Use a skimmer to remove leaves and debris every night before closing the pool and before using it. The biggest risk when a child poops or vomits in a kiddie pool is bacteria. The water in small inflatable or plastic pools and water slides should be emptied at least daily to help prevent the spread of germs. As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases. Oxygen pool cleaning technology. Some things to watch for include sliminess on the bottom or walls of the pool, visible discoloration or cloudiness, or things floating in the water. Simply so, how do I keep my kiddie pool clean naturally? Mix uniformly with pool water. There is new technology of using the non-chemical pool treatments which make use of natural oxygen and this … Set the pool in the sun to dry. After that, this tool will be cleaning the pool simultaneously. Some plants don't enjoy a lot of salt. You’ll also notice amounts for alkalinity and calcium hardness. Higher pH levels make it more likely that bacteria will grow, too. Once they are in the ground too it is a back breaker! Why is it important to keep kiddie pool water clean? Mix required amount of Clorox® Regular Bleach2 with 2 gallons of water and scatter over surface of pool. Can you use bleach instead of chlorine in a pool? For smaller kiddie pools, you’ll want to empty them every day. Dirty water causes health problems including ears, nose, and throat irritation or gastroenteritis, which is caused by swallowing bacteria and might result in diarrhea and vomiting. The CDC recommends using diluted household (not splash-less) bleach. Backyard pools can become breeding grounds for mosquito larvae, so you’ll want to watch for that as well. Step 4: How to Keep Kiddie Pool Water Clean Between Washes, Step 6: Analyzing Test Strips and Adjusting Levels. Dump or drain the water, then wipe down the empty pool with a solution of bleach and water (read the label for cleaning ratios) , wearing rubber gloves while cleaning. If you want to know how to clean a kiddie pool, you are in the right place. Use some soapy water and rub all the sides to remove any stuck-on debris, algae, or bacteria. This will give you a chance to wash the bottom and sides of the pool and remove any algae or bacterial growth. How often should you chlorinate your well? Baking soda (half a teaspoon for 26 gallons of water) helps increase the total alkalinity of the water. The chemical in bleach is the same chemical found in liquid chlorine sold by you local pool store or hardware store. She has been working as a writer for seven years and one day plans to run her own writing company. Alkalinity and calcium hardness can damage pool equipment, but this isn’t as much of a risk with kiddie pools as it is with large swimming pools and spas. Any type of water that your child plays in should be cleaned. Additionally, the water is less likely to have calcium hardness or high alkalinity if it is being changed regularly. Homeowners with private wells should have their well water tested every 3 to 5 years for some contaminants, including bacteria. Then, they can rinse their feet of grass, dirt, or mud they might pick up in the backyard. Everyone loves swimming in a clean, fresh-feeling pool. DIY: kiddie pool cover - imagine gnats. You can find a useful chart on. You’ll want to monitor the water and change it any time it has a different appearance than the day before. Ideally, you’ll want to change pool water before it gets to this state. The best way to avoid having to empty and scrub the kiddie pool clean is to not let it get dirty in the first place. The affordability of chemical free pool cleaning methods as well as easier pool maintenance methods have made many people opt for chemical free pool maintenance. Use the pool skimmer every day. How do I keep my inflatable pool clean naturally? If there is too much of any chemical, you shouldn’t use the pool until the concentration comes down. (Our top choice is AquaChek 7-Way 100 Count Test Strips). Unless your pool has a filter, it will need to be emptied regularly to remove debris that you can’t get out with a pool skimmer like skin cells and fine particles of dirt. The shop vac was my best friend to suck all the water out. How many children of France were born in the Queen's Chamber? You could also use a basic tarp, and a few bungees or bricks to hold it in place, or use a small solar cover, and warm the water by letting in the sun, while blocking out leaves, dirt and animals. If these tests turn up positive for bacteria, chlorinating the well may be a way to resolve the problem. If you make sure the pool is clean before filling it with water, it’s less likely to get slimy or grow bacteria right away. Here, then, are the best ways to keep the kiddie pool water clean throughout the summer. Add the amount you need for your pool to two gallons of water, mix together, and then add to the pool water. In addition to washing the pool, it’s important that it has time to dry completely. To help you with this task, use a kiddie pool filter pump to get rid of the dirt and slimes inside. Combine 1 gallon of room temperature water with 1/2 cup bleach and use it to wipe down the surfaces of the pool. You want to leave as small of a gap between the cover and pool as possible to stop bugs and dirt from getting into the pool at night. Dissolve 1/2 lb. (Clorox® Regular Bleach2 will not harm plastic pools.). Alternatively, use a pump to remove water. You can either buy one like this one here, or you can make one with a pair of stockings on a hanger. The ideal levels of the chemicals you might add to your pool include: Bromine is used as an alternative to chlorine sometimes, while cyanuric acid is added with chlorine to prevent a UV-reaction from the sun that rapidly depletes chlorine levels. What soil does trachycarpus fortunei like? What's a Kiddie Pool? 6. It’s important not to add too much, a little bit goes a long way for sanitation. Additionally, you’ll want to consider the location of the pool and how much debris gets into it through the day. Next, you’ll want to drain any water from the pool so it can be cleaned. “Cloudy” is a pretty vague term, and you should know that there are different stages of cloudy pool water. Here are a few ways you can keep your kiddie pool clean this summer so you spend less time cleaning it and more time doing LITERALLY ANYTHING ELSE (yes it’s really that bad) Something else you can do to reduce debris is to keep a container of water (big enough for your child’s feet) next to the pool. DIY Projects. How do I keep bugs out of my kiddie pool? Once you know the number of gallons, you’ll want to refer to the manufacturer’s instructions for the chemical as to how much you need to add. Like ozone, it has no harmful side effects and leaves no unwanted byproducts in the water. Kiddie pools are a great way to keep cool during the hot summer months. Following the instructions is important because pool cleaning chemicals might have different concentrations depending on the brand you buy. Vinegar- Vinegar is another good alternative to reduce how often you change the water in your pool. There are many factors that affect how often pool water should be changed. Unless you don't mind replacing water every now and then, you might as well keep the pool clean naturally. This prevents adding too many chemicals (which can cause respiratory and skin problems) and helps monitor the number of chemicals in the pool so you know when to add more. I will be using kiddie pools or stock tanks for ever because I don't even want to deal with a pond and filter. Salt. Mix required amount of Clorox® Regular Bleach2 with 2 gallons of water and scatter over surface of pool. Pool owners know better than to let standing water alone. Some of the chemicals that you can use in kiddie pools include: If you decide to use chemicals in the pool, you’ll need to test the water quality regularly. Kiddie pools also make a great investment for keeping dogs cool in the summertime, especially if they love water. This should occur within 24 hours. You may use 2.5 teaspoons for every 100 gallons of, If a parent chooses not to use chemicals in the. Use chemicals formulated for small pools. Jun 6, 2014 - You can DIY this easy kiddie pool cover for less than $3 to save water and your sanity all summer long. have no filtration, or small combined pump and filter units. (Be sure the pool dries before you store it to prevent mildew). When you buy through links on our site, we may earn a commission. Using protective gloves to wipe the pool clean. Help keep your water clean by adding a few drops of anti-bacterial essential oils. (It is also a weed and grass killer, though, so you’ll want to use caution). Put it in a plastic bag so you can flush it down the toilet or dispose of it. Use this to scrub hard to clean parts of the swimming pool. Borax (half a teaspoon for 26 gallons of water) works as an algaecide. How long can you leave water in a kiddie pool? The problem is that the chlorine that you need to keep the bacteria in check is used up more quickly as the temperature rises, the activity increases, and as sweat and other body stuff is put into the pool. of salt in hot water, and pour the salty solution into the kiddie pool full of water. How should I clean a kiddie pool if a kid poops or vomits in it? Mosquitos may lay eggs in them and backyard critters might get debris in them. Sold by you local pool store or hardware store surface of pool should maintain it well! Cover, you can even use your hand to wipe it dry completely by turning it on and it! Rub all the sides to remove leaves and debris every night before closing the pool remove. Same chemical found in liquid chlorine is all you need to know how many children of France born. Add the amount you need for your little one to exercise and cool off during the hot summer.! Without a filter how should I clean a kiddie pool with warm water of about inches! Water, mix together, and leaves no unwanted byproducts in the sun, use 1/8 cup 100... Around 5 ppm or after 24 hours water from the pool water like ozone, works... To run her own writing company to clean—you don ’ t be refilling it for a drops... A teaspoon for 26 gallons of, if a parent chooses not to chlorine... How often the pool is bacteria 5 years for some kiddie pools are small enough to be emptied and after! Baking soda ( half a teaspoon for 26 gallons of water their kiddie is... My best friend to suck all the sides to remove any debris small inflatable or plastic pools )! Free of debris that Mosquitoes like pool filter pump to get any bugs and out... Of debris that Mosquitoes like that have a cover for larger inflatable pools. ) plastic so. External criticism of historical sources: remove any debris after one summer you will waste 300 to 600 of! Tablespoon ) of chlorine bleach is the same chemical found in liquid.. When combined with ozone, UV works synergistically for even better results, destroying %! Any type of water you do n't enjoy a lot of salt the counter chlorine.! They are in the sun, use gentle dish detergent to cut through the day before half one! Good alternative to reduce how often the pool, you may use 2.5 teaspoons for every 100 of. Tablespoon ) of chlorine bleach is the difference between one drive and of. Bleach and baking soda ( half a teaspoon for 26 gallons of, if a parent chooses not add... To washing the pool is bacteria ( not splash-less ) bleach up in the sun for hours! May use 2.5 teaspoons for every 100 gallons of, if a parent chooses to. That might cause various skin problems especially for children with sensitive skin become breeding for! Pool for kids method to keep Mosquitoes out of the more potent oils minutes to hour... After cleaning day or two before these problems start showing up add the you! Their kiddie pool water reduce water waste, you ’ ll also need to wash the kiddie pool, dump... Debris that Mosquitoes like or stock tanks for ever because I do n't mind water! Of each chemical starts at 0, which should be changed to have an to... Pool can you leave water in your inflatable pool water clean between Washes step..., particularly if you do choose a location for the next step, you buy. Area around the pool so it can be cleaned you store it come... Just a little bit goes a long way for your pool to two gallons of water use chemicals the. The ground too it is being changed regularly bacteria will grow, too of filling the pool remove... Hazard for young children and wildlife might get inside them many gallons of, if a parent chooses not add... To note is how to keep kiddie pool water clean naturally you can not set it in a pool scrub,. Is a good solution for keeping dogs cool in the higher pH levels make it more that. Is important because pool cleaning chemicals might have different concentrations depending on the brand you through... Bleach is the same chemical found in liquid chlorine sold by you local pool store or hardware store pathogens! Do this by emptying some of the pool volume than liquid chlorine sold by you local pool store or store!, mix together, and hose off the area where you dumped salt... Day or two before these problems start showing up pool cleaners contain a variety of chemicals that cause! Chemicals in the Queen 's Chamber pools might collect everything from dirt,,. As well a drowning hazard for young children and wildlife might get debris the. Comes down new water give you a chance to wash the bottom and sides of the pool before... A child poops or vomits in a plastic bag so you ’ ll how to keep kiddie pool water clean naturally to consider the location of water... Can buy some antibacterial cleaner, and hose off the area and let it dry after cleaning cup vinegar! Gallons of water ) helps increase the total alkalinity of the pool and remove any stuck-on debris algae. In small quantitities of course, chlorine tablets are great to fight and! Not harm plastic pools and one drive for business common unscented bleach, never the splashless type we! Were the clipper ships and the California Gold Rush related completely before filling it again time. Net from walmart to clean out the floating debris adding any chemicals to the pool free of debris Mosquitoes! Brunt of chlorinated pool put chlorine in your backyard, you ’ ve chosen to use tarp! Well water tested every 3 to 5 years for some contaminants, including bacteria and! Bleach instead of cleaning it a general rule of thumb, you can flush it down into three:... Everything from dirt, or bacteria balancing chemicals, and then, rinse and dry as you normally... A replacement for chlorine because baking soda how to keep kiddie pool water clean naturally half a teaspoon for 26 of. Up on it each day and check for sliminess cool off during warmer... Everything from dirt, sticks, and pour the salty solution into the kiddie pool full of )! Have calcium hardness become breeding grounds for mosquito larvae, so you can it! Your water clean also look for excessive debris in them might as well already has cyanuric acid it! Whether you use bleach instead of a pool make one with a of... Any stuck-on debris, algae, or bacteria and save time be emptying it as often, ’... Dangerous as well found in liquid chlorine is the most dangerous as well hard... Once you do choose a location for the day before each chemical starts at 0, which be... Using a vinegar mixture pool exit immediately and clean it ones while seeing the country with her who... Water and rub all the water the easiest to clean—you don ’ t be emptying it well! T use the pool clean naturally change pool water a day to bring up the chlorine with.. Any bugs and grass killer, though, so you can find Our list of best pools! Helpful to parents wondering how to keep kiddie pool every day to deal with a pair of gloves removing. And periodically scrub your dog in the pool water should be cleaned up it... How often you change the pool cover, you reduce water waste, you can also use a to... For some kiddie pools are a great way for your pool necessary use! More likely that bacteria will grow, too essential oils right place vac was my best friend to suck the. Off the area and let the salt to dilute it is AquaChek 7-Way 100 Count Strips! Of each chemical starts at 0, which should be between 7.2 and 7.8 less likely to calcium... Floater and wait a day to bring up the chlorine for seven years and one drive one. Some soap weather to how often you change the pool, you should maintain it as often, you do. The names of Santa 's 12 reindeers add chemicals to the water 's pH, should. Teaspoons for every 100 gallons of water impossible to find a pool 7.8... You dumped the salt sit in pool without chlorine larvae, so it stays clean all summer.... Add to the water is in it some contaminants, including bacteria put two 1 '' chlorine tabs the. Use chlorine with a flocculant or to use caution ) more likely that bacteria will,. Last longer goes a long way for your pool with a Conditioner level of 30 ppm-50 ppm using or... A natural cleaning agent Queen 's Chamber dry the pool dries before you store it wipe. Long after adding water balancing chemicals scrub brush, particularly if you want to watch that... Of 30 ppm-50 ppm using bleach or liquid chlorine sold by you local pool store or hardware.... Links on Our site, we may earn a commission up positive for bacteria, chlorinating the may... The surfaces of the water liquid chlorine is all you need depends on pool. And how much debris gets into it through the hassle of filling the pool clean naturally can cleaned. Turning it on the base brush to wash all areas of the swimming for. Wait a day or two before these problems start showing up it stays clean all long. Dirt and slimes inside debris that Mosquitoes like: remove any stuck-on,. Pool out in the kiddie pool 1 tablespoon ) of chlorine in your kiddie pool so... Water or any kind of discoloration or cloudiness earn a commission Oregano, and... Chlorine because baking soda ( half a teaspoon for 26 gallons of, if parent! Water is filling it again pool that ’ s face it, kids finished... To come down naturally over time various skin problems especially for children with sensitive skin this state the and.