… Phthalates are a large group of chemicals often used to soften plastic. [6] Our 2008 follow-up testing found that phthalate levels had dropped in some – though not all – of the products tested previously in 2002. Toxicological Science, vol. 114, pp 270-276, 2006. Available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1367843/pdf/ehp0114-000270.pdf. Two decades of research suggest that phthalates disrupt hormones, which can lead to harm during critical periods of development. CDC found phthalates in virtually every person tested, but the largest concentrations -- 20 times higher than the rest of the population -- were found in women of child-bearing age. Available online: https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=14. Phthalates help fragrances and perfumes adhere to skin. [9] Manori JS, et al., Urinary levels of seven phthalate metabolites in a human reference population. [2] European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). None of the 72 products tested had phthalates listed on the labels. August 18, 2014. Available online: http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/3/688.full.pdf+html. Pronounced THAL-ates, these chemicals, which are linked to endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive toxicity, and cancer, have been banned from cosmetics in the European Union, but still remain prevalent in U.S. products. [7], Phthalates are commonly found in human urine samples. Female laboratory rats chronically exposed to DBP and other phthalates showed altered sex hormones and increased likelihood of fetal loss. Available online: http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/93/1/189.full.pdf+html. August 18, 2014. [24]  Exposure to phthalates, especially DBP and DEHP, can reduce fetal testosterone production, and these anti-androgenic effects may alter fetal cell differentiation and function, leading to altered male genital development. 113, pp 1056-1061, 2005. Available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1280349/pdf/ehp0113-001056.pdf. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Phthalates (THAL-ates) are chemicals that make plastic soft and flexible. Climacteric, vol. [25],[26],[27] 112, no. August 18, 2014. [12] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). A salt or ester of phthalic acid used in the preparation of plastics and solvents. He won the Edward J. Meeman Award for Environmental Reporting. 4,6,7,11,12. Phthalates. 112, no. [20]European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Available online: http://echa.europa.eu/web/guest/candidate-list-table August 13, 2014. Available online: https://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/13641/dbp_echa_review_report_2010_6_en.pdf August 13, 2014. Available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1519124/pdf/envhper00355-0058.pdf. Phthalates are a group of chemicals in most plastic containers … 24, no. They are used hundreds of products such as detergents, automative parts, vinyl flooring and personal care products. If you look on the back of your average skin-care product, you might see the words “butylparaben,” “methylparaben” or “propylparaben.”These paraben ingredients are preservatives used in cosmetics, and even though you might see them everywhere, they are still being reviewed by FDA scientists on their safety. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, vol. A petroleum by-product that coats the skin like plastic, clogging its pores. A variety of environmentally persistent chemicals, including some phthalate plasticizers, are weakly estrogenic. Because they are in so … Additionally, phthalates are used in personal skin care products for viscosity control and are also used as stabilizers, dispersants, lubricants, binders, emulsifying agents, and suspending agents. Error: (#10) This endpoint requires the 'manage_pages' or 'pages_read_user_content' permission or the 'Page Public Content Access' feature. The non-profit Environmental Working Group launched the Not Too Pretty campaign to raise awareness about the dangers of phthalates, industrial chemicals that are used as solvents in many cosmetics. Later independent research conducted at the University of California, Irvine, Department of Dermatology, analyzed 30 baby skin care products for 17 phthalates. Refer to https://developers.facebook.com/docs/apps/review/login-permissions#manage-pages and https://developers.facebook.com/docs/apps/review/feature#reference-PAGES_ACCESS for details. [32] Borch J, et al., Mechanisms underlying the anti-androgenic effects of diethylhelxyl phthalate in fetal rat testis. What they are: Compounds used in antiperspirants to stop the sweat ducts from releasing sweat to the surface of the skin. https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=14. In field research, the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics only found phthalates listed as an ingredient in nail polish,[5] but our 2002 report, Not Too Pretty, detected phthalates in nearly three-fourths of tested products. 114, pp 270-276, 2006. Abstract Available Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20551087. [10], A significant loophole in federal law allows phthalates (and other chemicals) to be added to fragrances without disclosure to consumers. 1, pp 189-95, 2006. [36] Kim IY, Han SY, Moon A. Phthalates inhibit tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. [8] The researchers speculate that the high prevalence of DEP is the result of the chemicals’ use in cosmetics and other fragranced products. July 24, 2008. Available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1280349/pdf/ehp0113-001056.pdf. © 2020 Campaign for Safe Cosmetics, a project of, https://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/13641/dbp_echa_review_report_2010_6_en.pdf, https://echa.europa.eu/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.003.829, https://www.byrdie.com/free-nail-polish-14-brands-worth-your-money-346730, https://static.ewg.org/reports/2002/NotTooPretty.pdf?_ga=2.79541012.1878150350.1597799880-1583975922.1597799880, http://www.safecosmetics.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/A-Little-Prettier.pdf, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241863/pdf/ehp0112-000331.pdf, https://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/pdf/FourthReport_UpdatedTables_Sep2013.pdf, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/docum/pdf/bkh_annex_13.pdf, http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=527, http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=505, http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=510, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1280349/pdf/ehp0113-001056.pdf, https://www.bcpp.org/resource/phthalates/, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1367843/pdf/ehp0114-000270.pdf, http://echa.europa.eu/web/guest/candidate-list-table, http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/3/688.full.pdf+html, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21594692, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19235623, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20551087. [19]European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). August 18, 2014. Phthalates are a group of chemicals used to make products more liquid and less dry. [9] While levels of DEP have declined over time, disparities in exposure persist. Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 113, pp 1056-1061, 2005. August 18, 2014. August 18, 2014. Available online: http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=510 August 13, 2014. EWG spokesperson Lauren E. Sucher urges people—especially women who are pregnant, nursing or planning on becoming pregnant—to avoid phthalates. For many of us, our exposure to phthalates may be low on any given day, but we absorb these small quantities of chemicals frequently, over decades. [5] Malkan, S. Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry. 6, pp 507-14, 2010. Abstract Available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16326419. The Upside Parabens are synthetic preservatives found in all sorts of things; from foods to pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and personal care products like deodorant and shampoos - probably most of your old favorites. In cosmetic products, they are also used as softeners. Too many beauty or self-care products contain phthalates that go directly onto your skin and into your pores. Available online: http://www.safecosmetics.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/A-Little-Prettier.pdf August 18, 2014. [30] One of the ways that phthalates interfere with reproductive function is by reducing the levels of sex hormones, which are critical for development and functioning of the sex organs, including breasts. [28] Gray LE, et al., Chronic di-n-butyl phthalate exposure in rats reduces fertility and alters ovarian function during pregnancy in female Long Evans hooded rats. Environmental Health Perspectives 103(6):582-7. The female reproductive system may be less sensitive to phthalate exposure than the male reproductive system,[28] although a few studies have found female reproductive effects. Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. Another study, led by Dr. Shanna Swan of the University of Missouri, identified developmental abnormalities in male infants correlating to high phthalate levels in their mothers’ bodies. [8] Manori JS, et al., Urinary levels of seven phthalate metabolites in a human reference population. Reports on Carcinogens, twelfth edition, 2011: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Available online: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/twelfth/roc12.pdf August 13, 2014. Long words are a little bit intimidating, … In the most recent data from the National Biomonitoring Program, the highest levels are found in non-Hispanic blacks, followed by Mexican-Americans. Aging Skin. Phthalates work as softeners in personal care products such as cosmetics and shampoo, as well as flexible plastics like children’s toys. Boycotting parabens but no idea what they actually are? A review of epidemiological studies. The Truth About Skincare's Biggest Bad Guy. May be used as a synthetic additive. Environmental Research, vol. The most common type of phthalate used in skincare products is diethyl phthalate … They are often included in many fragrances used in skincare products to make the scents linger. [17] Other research in humans has shown altered hormone levels in baby boys exposed to DEP and DEHP in breast milk. [7] They get metabolized in our bodies and excreted through our urine and bile. Currently, potential links to obesity and metabolic issues are being investigated. A 2003 European Union directive bans phthalates in cosmetics sold in Europe, but U.S. and Canadian regulators have not been so proactive, despite mounting evidence of potential harm. Lately, brands, bloggers and natural skincare experts alike have been perpetuating the myth that up to 60% of chemicals or ingredients in our skincare products, such … An analysis of the 1999-2000 data from the CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program found metabolites of DEP in all 2,540 samples and metabolites of DBP in 99% of samples. NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards: naphtha (coal tar). What are Phthalates? International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, vol. phthalates are also present in cosmetics, nail polish, hair products, skin care products, and some medications. [30] Tranfo G., et al., Urinary phthalate monoesters concentration in couples with infertility problems. Triclosan and triclocarban. [17] Other research in humans has shown altered hormone levels in baby boys exposed to DEP and DEHP in breast milk. A significant loophole in federal law allows phthalates (and other chemicals) to be added to fragrances without disclosure to consumers. Diethyl phthalate. August 18, 2014. Of the samples tested, only four had phthalate levels above the reporting limit – the majority (26 out of 30) had no detectable phthalate … Examples of Organic Chemistry in Everyday Life, The Safest Type of Water Bottle to Drink From. 93, no. [38] Jobling S, Reynolds T, White R, Parker MG, Sumpter JP (1995). Non-hispanic whites have the lowest levels. 67, pp 2025-2035, 2004. We enlisted the experts to help decipher the science. Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 2, pp 115-41, 2011. Cancer: The National Toxicology Program and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report that DEHP is reasonably to be anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity of animal studies. Available online: http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/139/2/427.full.pdf+html. [15] Swan SH, et al., Decrease in Anogenital Distance among Male Infants with Prenatal Phthalate Exposure. Meanwhile, the industry-backed American Chemistry Council asserts, “There is no reliable evidence that any phthalate has ever caused a health problem for a human from its intended use.” The group accuses organizations of “cherry-picking” results “showing impacts on test animals to create unwarranted concern about these products.”. August 18, 2014. [13]The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). Available online: http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=527 August 13, 2014. Scientists at government agencies in … [21] Hauser R, et al., DNA damage in human sperm is related to urinary levels of phthalate monoester and oxidative metabolites. BHA (Beta Hydroxy Acid) Retinol. 139, pp 427-37, 2010. DEP is also used in fragranced products to help the scent stay on longer. Jane Iredale, whose namesake fifteen-year-old skincare and cosmetics company is phthalate- and paraben-free, substitutes natural antioxidants for synthetic preservatives and sponsors events held by Teens for Safe Cosmetics, a branch of the nonprofit environmental organization Search for the Cause. Phthalates refers to a wide range of substances that are very different from one another. [23] Kamrin MA., Phthalate risks, phthalate regulation, and public health: a review. [40], VULNERABLE POPULATIONS: Pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers. Available online:  https://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/13641/dbp_echa_review_report_2010_6_en.pdf August 13, 2014. The best way to avoid consuming or applying phthalates directly to the skin is to make your own products. Available online: https://www.byrdie.com/free-nail-polish-14-brands-worth-your-money-346730 August 14, 2014. Dibutyl phthalates. Available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1280349/pdf/ehp0113-001056.pdf. [4] Byrdie.14 ‘5 free’ nail polish brands. Diethylhexyl phthalate harms the reproductive system and can affect the developing fetus. Not Too Pretty: Phthalates, Beauty Products and the FDA. [4] 2) DEP is widely used in scented products to help the scent linger, although it is rarely found on labels because it is a constituent of the ubiquitous ingredient “fragrance.” A third phthalate, Di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) is found in eyelash glue, and is widely used in other consumer products. Non-hispanic whites have the lowest levels. [39] Chen FP. Health: SLS and SLES can irritate eyes, skin, and lungs, especially with long-term use.SLES may also be contaminated with a substance called 1,4-dioxane, which is … In field research, the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics only found phthalates listed as an ingredient in nail polish,[5] but our 2002 report, Not Too Pretty, detected phthalates in nearly three-fourths of tested products. Pregnant women’s exposure to the phthalates DBP and DEHP has been associated with a shortened distance between the anus and genitals in their male babies, indicating a feminization had occurred during prenatal genital development. & Hanke W., Exposure to phthalates: reproductive outcome and children health. Toxicology Letters, vol. Abstract Available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16690193. Available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21594692 August 14, 2014. BB Cream. 3, pp 331-338, 2002. Research in adult human males has found that sperm quality and male infertility are associated with levels of MEP and MEHP (metabolites of DEP and DEHP) [21],[22],[23] and that higher levels lead to more strongly impaired sperm motility. [40], Endocrine disruption: The European commission has determined that there is sufficient evidence that DBP and DEHP leads to endocrine disruption in living organism. It also provides information on many other chemical compounds found in products beyond just cosmetics, including sunscreens, baby products, and toothpaste. [11] European Commission. Women, especially black women, have been found to have a higher body burden of certain chemicals found in cosmetics, including parabens and phthalates… EWG maintains a free online database named "Skin Deep", which list lotions, creams, and polishes that contain phthalates. Unable to display Facebook posts.Show errorfunction cffShowError() { document.getElementById("cff-error-reason").style.display = "block"; document.getElementById("cff-show-error").style.display = "none"; }, A project of Breast Cancer Prevention Partners. Available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21594692 August 14, 2014. Phthalates are also employed as plastic softeners in many different consumer products, including children’s toys and medical devices. & Hanke W., Exposure to phthalates: reproductive outcome and children health. Available online: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1280349/. [26] Main KM, et al., Human breast milk contamination with phthalates and alterations of endogenous reproductive hormones in infants three months of age. 113, pp 1056-1061, 2005. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1280349/. August 18, 2014. She is known worldwide as The Cosmetics Cop and creator of Paula’s Choice Skincare. Female laboratory rats chronically exposed to DBP and other phthalates showed altered sex hormones and increased likelihood of fetal loss. [38],[39]  The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health demonstrates that DEHP can cause liver tumors in animals. REGULATIONS: DBP[1] and DEHP[2] are banned in cosmetics sold in the EU. A Little Prettier. Know the difference between Latin names and chemicals. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, vol. [6] Our 2008 follow-up testing found that phthalate levels had dropped in some – though not all – of the products tested previously in 2002. Health advocates were temporarily relieved when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that it would begin enforcing a 1975 law requiring labels on products with ingredients that haven't been safety tested. [29] Gray LE, et al., Chronic di-n-butyl phthalate exposure in reats reduces fertility and alters ovarian function during pregnancy in female Long Evans hooded rats. [31],[32],[33] [34],[35] DBP has been shown to cause proliferation of breast tumor cells and to make anti-estrogen treatments, such as tamoxifen, less effective against tumors. Gabriola, BC, Canada: New Society Publishers, pp. Phthalates. Shown to damage the liver, kidneys, lungs and reproductive systems in animal studies, phthalates can be absorbed through the skin or inhaled. [24]  Exposure to phthalates, especially DBP and DEHP, can reduce fetal testosterone production, and these anti-androgenic effects may alter fetal cell differentiation and function, leading to altered male genital development. Developmental and reproductive toxicity: The European Chemicals Agency classifies DEHP[19] and DBP[20] as reproductive toxicants. 213, pp 15-20, 2012. An analysis of the 1999-2000 data from the CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program found metabolites of DEP in all 2,540 samples and metabolites of DBP in 99% of samples. 18-19. 22, pp 688-695, 2007. MINERAL OIL. HOW TO AVOID: Read the labels on nail products, and choose options that do not contain DBP. These chemicals, known as plasticizers, are used to make plastics more flexible and less breakable. 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